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Cost Analysis and Capacity Planning Statistics of Heterojunction Cells in China in 2021

1. Production Cost Of Solar Power System

The full name of heterojunction cell is crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell, also known as HIT, HJT, HDT, SHJ. It is a special PN junction formed by amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon materials. The technology is to deposit amorphous silicon thin films on crystalline silicon, which combines the advantages of crystalline silicon cells and thin film cells, and is considered to be a high conversion efficiency silicon base. One of the important development directions of solar cells.


Driven by policies and technologies, the iteration of the industry is like "back waves push forward waves", and the photovoltaic product is no exception. In the photovoltaic industry, which is constantly pursuing "cost reduction and efficiency improvement", the iterative demand for cells is particularly important. Heterojunction cells (HJT), with their huge potential of "increasing efficiency and reducing costs", have become the "post-wave" of the photovoltaic industry, promoting technological changes in the photovoltaic industry.


Compared with PERC technology, HJT, except labor costs, all other costs are currently higher than PERC. Compared with the current mainstream high-efficiency photovoltaic cell PERC, the core process of heterojunction cells only has four steps: texturing and cleaning, amorphous silicon film deposition, TCO preparation, and electrode preparation, so the labor cost is relatively low. Consistent with the cost composition of PERC, 80% of the cost comes from the cost of silicon wafers and BOM.


2. Conversion Efficiency Of Solar Power System

The heterojunction battery can significantly improve the conversion efficiency of the battery through the unique heterojunction structure, and the current mass production efficiency is close to 24%.


Its main advantages are:


(1) The potential for efficiency improvement is high. By superimposing IBC or perovskite technology, the highest efficiency can reach more than 25% and 28% respectively;


(2) The cost reduction space is large, and the low-temperature process + N-type battery is easier to realize the thinning of silicon wafers;


(3) Its bifacial symmetry has a higher bifacial rate, and the bifacial cell module can obtain an annual power generation gain of more than 10%; (4) It has lower light-induced attenuation than PERC cells.


Recently, the HJT conversion efficiency of leading companies has frequently broken records, and HJT efficiency improvement and cost reduction are being realized. In October, the conversion efficiency of LONGi's silicon-based heterojunction cells reached 26.3%, which is the highest efficiency of crystalline silicon FBC structure cells in the world. In July, Huasheng set a world record of 25.23% conversion efficiency on a 166-size HJT cell.


3. Capacity Planning Of Solar Power System

In 2021, the planned global HJT production capacity has reached 148.2GW. Among them, the completed capacity is 6.35GW, and the under-construction/to-be-built capacity is 141.9GW. 2021-2022 is the stage of large-size HJT battery supporting equipment and production line inspection. The current mass production size is mainly M2, G1, and M4. A few companies have the ability to produce M6 size, and M10 and G12 sizes are still in the research and development stage.


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